Tag Archives: cleancode


Substitutability is a principle in object-oriented programming stating that, in a computer program, if S is a subtype of T, then objects of type T may be replaced with objects of type S (i.e. an object of type T may be substituted with any object of a subtype S) without altering any of the desirable properties of the program (correctness, task performed, etc.). More formally, the Liskov substitution principle (LSP) is a particular definition of a subtyping relation, called (strongbehavioral subtyping, that was initially introduced by Barbara Liskov in a 1987.

The Liskov Substitution Principle is the third of Robert C. Martin’s SOLID design principles. It extends the Open/Closed principle and enables you to replace objects of a parent class with objects of a subclass without breaking the application. This requires all subclasses to behave in the same way as the parent class.


Functions that use pointers or references to base classes must be able to use objects of derived classes without knowing it.” – Robert C. Martin

A violation of this behaviour would imply your code is not SOLID and it may be prone to malfunctioning.